Liquid Fuel Boiler

This is where the liquid fuel is stored in a 1000 litre tank. The liquid fuel is also very difficult to ignite and stored at atmospheric pressure (unpressurised). In addition you cannot light paraffin with an open flame as it has a very high flash point temperature. These make it inherently the safest energy storage system in the world.


 Stored at very high pressure (7 times atmospheric temperature) and can be lit by an open flame as it has a low flash point temperature. This makes gas storage into a very real potential hazard. In addition it is more expensive to run than Liquid Fuel. Gas is 400 times lighter than liquid fuel which makes the boiler smaller and therefore 25% cheaper to install. However it is 80% more expensive to run.


 A heat pump draws its extra energy efficiency from the latent heat in the surrounding air. It is most efficient when ambient temperature is at 20 degrees Celcius. However when the outside temperature drops and you now want to heat your rooms there is not enough heat in the air for the heat pump. For this reason the heat pump should be increased to at least double the size of what is quoted as the output of the corresponding system rating (Kilowatts). Otherwise you will not have enough power to achieve the desired indoor temperature. This therefore substantially increases the installation and running costs.

Solar Supplement

The solar energy source is a supplementary and renewal energy source. It can only provide about 30% – 40% of the energy demand, in the event that the sun does not shine. The Primary Energy Source must take over the complete energy demand.

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The Energy Source is the technology that imparts heat energy from the fuel to the transmission water and can either be a boiler (liquid fuel or gas) or an electric heat pump or solar supplement.

Operating cost comparison

Fuel Type

In greater Johannesburg

Gross Purchase Price

(Price per volume delivered, includes VAT)

Purchase Units

% Difference

Comparing apples with apples (kWh)

Gas/ LPGR 1265.00/ 48kgkg+38%
ElectricityR 1.55 winterkWhbase
Natural Egoli Gas
(Central Jhb only)
R 300.17/ GJGJ-30%
Liquid FuelR 10.12/ LitreLitre-35%